Education by music “Beethoven: the triumph and groans of a great era in music and the fate of a genius“
Ludwig van Beethoven was fourteen years younger than Mozart. We can say that they lived almost at the same time, breathed the air of one era. Why, then, did they think differently, and did their works sound in completely different languages? Wise teachers tell us that “talented music can reflect reality.” This means that ingenious composers capture in their works the main, epoch-making events of which they are contemporaries. Grandiose events are reflected not only in music. Most tangibly they are represented in painting and sculpture. For example, the brilliant Spanish artist Francisco Goya managed to very vividly and truly capture the bloody breath on canvas of his terrible era of the medieval Inquisition with its torture, the burning of heretics, and the humiliation of man. The Renaissance overcame obscurantism of the Middle Ages.
Exalted Man. I saw in him the highest value. The ideas of humanism shone on the canvases of Leonardo da Vinci (“Mona Lisa”, “Lady with an Ermine”, “Portrait of a Musician”), Raphael (“The Holy Family”, “Sistine Madonna”), Michelangelo (“Last Judgment”, statue “David”) . Around the same years in Russia, images of saints in Rublev’s icons became more realistic, humane. Artists of the 19th and 20th centuries preserved for posterity the memory of the atrocities of war and the greatness of Victory: “The Apotheosis of War” V.V. Vereshchegin, “Guernica” P. Picasso, “The fascist flew” A.A. Plastova, “Defense of Sevastopol” A.A. Deineka. Musicians are no less vivid, and perhaps even more emotional, paint their era using the colors that time gives them. Medieval music (476-1400gg.) Lived in temples, was firmly connected with the life of the Church, served its rites.
A palette of colors was sent down from heaven. Therefore, the dominant feature of this music was religious subjects. Then came the Musical Renaissance (1400-1600): following the decline in the role of the Church in society, secular, non-religious genres began to gain strength. Church music during this period also underwent changes: it became more mature, deep, soulful. In the Baroque era (1600-1750), the emotionality and complexity of music increased markedly. There are more musical decorations. The period of Classicism (1750-1800) was characterized by some weakening of the external beauty and ornamentation of musical works. The climax became noticeably brighter. Emotional saturation increased even more. The most prominent exponents of musical Classicism were J. Haydn, V.A. Mozart and, to a certain extent, L. van Beethoven.
Following the logic of this classification of musical eras, it would be logical to conclude that there should be more similarities than differences in the works of Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, if in some ways they were similar, it was perhaps only their talent. For many musical elements (ideas, musical images, themes, style), they were categorically different, like aliens from different galaxies. The reason for their dissimilarity was not only and not so much that Mozart was by nature a gentle, gentle, non-conflict person, and Beethoven, on the contrary, possessed a rebellious restless temperament. Then what are the true reasons for the dissimilarity of the musical works of the two geniuses? Why did they, living practically in the same era, “sing” two completely different Europe? The reason lies in the colossal in significance for the fate of all mankind events that began in Europe in 1789, when Beethoven turned nineteen, and Mozart had two years to live. It was in 1789. a huge gap has formed between the past and the future of mankind. Wolfgang Mozart just did not have time to take a step forward from the passing era … He remained flesh and flesh singer of Classicism. However, we will talk about this event of a universal scale a little later.
And now a few stories about Beethoven’s young years. Ludwig van Beethoven was born in 1770. in the city of Bonn, Germany. His grandfather, also named Ludwig, came to German lands from Flanders (a medieval county with Dutch roots). Thanks to his professional musical training, he was included in the court chapel (orchestra in the Catholic Church) of the Elector-Archbishop of Cologne. The grandfather’s son, Johann, spoke in the same chapel. He sang well. Possessed a talent. However, he did little for the family. He led a hectic life, drank a lot. He and his wife, Maria Magdalena Lyme (her father was a cook), had seven children. Ludwig and his two younger brothers survived. The family lived poorly. Father believed that Ludwig would be able to enrich his family by repeating the experience of the “miraculous” ascension of young Mozart to the musical Olympus. He was very cruel to his son. The first attempt at a public appearance by eight-year-old Beethoven was not very successful. This chilled father’s plans. Disappointed in his hopes, he became even less engaged with his son. Still, the purposeful Ludwig learned to play the piano and violin well. A little later he mastered the viola, flute and organ.